There are a very large number of Monuments and Historical Places in India, we have categorized them in alphabetical order in parts. Here you go :-
Located about 204 km. from Delhi in Uttar Pradesh, Agra is one of the most famous medieval cities of India. The rise of Agra as a great medieval city dates back to 1505 when Sultan Sikander Lodi made Agra the capital of the Lodi Kingdom in place of the existing capital Delhi. After the defect of the Lodis, Babar captured Agra and also died here. In 1558, Akbar re-established the Mughal capital at Agra. Under Akbar, Agra became one of the greatest cities of the contemporary world. Except from 1574 to 1586, when Akbar shifted his capital to Fatehpur Sikri, Agra remained the capital of the Mughal Empire till the second coronation of Aurangzeb. Agra commands a unique status in the art map of the world on account of numerous masterpieces of Mughal art and architecture. Some of the finest specimens of the Mughal art Agra are the Fort, the Taj. Jasmine Palace, Pearl Mosque, etc. The golden age of Agra came to an end with the end of Shri Jahan’s reign.
Situated on the bank of the river Sabarmati in Gujarat. Ahmedabad was founded in 1411 by Sultan Ahmad-i of Gujarat. Under Sultan Ahmad-I and his successors, Ahmedabad rapidly grew as the most well planned beautiful and prosperous city of Western India. In medieval India, it was also a great industrial town known for the manufacture of silk, brocades, gold and silver, thread and lac. At the close of the 17th century, the Italian traveller Careri called it the greatest city in India nothing interior to Venice’. The Sultans of Gujarat greatly enriched with numerous excellent monuments, such as: Ahmedabad fort, the Jami Masjid, the Tin Darwaja, Rani-Ka-Hazira, Sidi Sa id mosque, etc.
Located about 121 km. to the north-east of Pune, in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, Ahmednagar was founded in 1494 A. D. by Ahmad Nizam Shah, the founder of the Nizam-Shahi dynasty as the new capital of his Kingdom. From 1494 to 1636 when the Nizam-Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar was annexed to the Mughal Empire Ahmednagar served as the capital of the Nizam Shahi Kingdom and rapidly became a Premier town of the Deccan. Its fame was immortalised by the Nizam-Shahi, Prime Minister Malik Amber, and Queen Chand Bibi. The Nizami Shahi Sultans, during their rule for about a century and a half greatly enriched the city with excellent water supply system, numerous forts, mosques, palaces, tombs, gardens. The battle-scarred fort of Ahmednagar built by Nizam Husain Shah is one of the finest and the strongest forts of India.
Situated at the feet of the Taragarh hill, Ajmer now a principal town of Rajasthan, was founded by the Chahaman King Ajayapala who named the city as Ajaymeru. Ajayapala also shifted its capital from Sambhar to Ajmer some time before 1123 A. D. After the defeat of Prrthvi Raj Chauhan-lll, at the hands of the Muhammad Ghori, Ajmer was annexed to the Sultanate of Delhi. Akbar made Ajmer as the capital of the Mughal province of Rajputana. Ajmer was also the abode of greatest Indian Sufi saint Shaikh Moin-ud-din Chisti whose Dargah is a great centre of pilgrimage for the Hindus and Muslims alike.
Located at a distance of about 10 km. from Jaipur in Rajasthan, Amber was the capital of Kacchwaha Rajputs. Amber came to lime-light when its ruler gave his daughter in marriage to the great King Akbar and soon Amber emerge as a well known capital city of northern India. The Kachhawahas built numerous structures at Amber particularly the palace, the fort and artificial lake etc. Amber was also a great centre of Jainism. Till the foundation of Jaipur as a new capital of the Kachhawaha Kingdom, Amber served as a capital till 1727 A. D.
Situated on the Malaprabha river in Bijapur district of Karnataka, Aihole was the cradle of the Chalukyan architecture of all the three principal religions of India-Buddhism, Jainsim and Brahmanism The Chalukyan architecture of Aihole is particularly famous for the Buddhist rock cut caves.
Situated about 100 km north-west of Aurangabad in Maharashtra, Ajanta is famous for its ancient caves and cave paintings and is known as a museum ol Buddhist paintings. The making and adorning of these caves is supposed to have lasted for about a thousand years from the 2nd century B. C. to the 8th century A. D. But the place attained its greatest glory in the 6th and the 7th centuries A. D. when Ajanta developed into a shrine of Buddhism and one of the glories ol ancient art. At Ajanta, in all there are 29 caves which are either the Buddhist temples or monastries, Cave No. 17 has been described as the greatest gallery of Ajanta paintings. The painting of a Dying Princess’ in Cave No 2 is one of the finest Ajanta Paintings.
Situated on the banks of rivers Krishna in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, Amravati has been a flourishing centre ol Buddhism and the metropolis of the Andhra rulers, particularly under the Satvahans. The most famous monument of Amravati is the great stupa of Amravati, which was sumptiously sculptured and carved in its propserous days. Presently, a lofty temple of Amresvara stands on the bank of Krishna which is a great place of pilgrimage tor the Hindus.
Situated between the Ravi and the Boas rivers in the Punjab, Amritsar came into prominence with the rise of the Sikh Power. The fourth Sikh Guru Ramdas, took over in 1574, laid the foundation of the future city of Amritsar upon a site granted by the Mughal emperor Akbar. Guru Ramdas also excavated the holy tank of Amrita Sara from which the town derives its name. Guru Arjuna. the fifth Guru completed the sacred buildings and witnessed the growth of a flourishing town around the holy site of the Golden Temple. During the later 18th century the Sikh confederacies established their quarters in the city. Under Ranjit Singh, Amritsar received his much patronage and the city and the Golden Temple owe their numerous structures to Maharaja Ranjit Singh Amritsar was also famous as a great industrial centre and was particularly famous for its woolen shawls, carpets and silk fabrics.
Situated on the Kham river, in Maharashtra, Aurangabad is one of the famous historic towns of Indian and no other district in India has so many historical monuments such as Ajanta, Ellora, Daulatabad, Paithan etc., as this district. Aurangabad was founded by the Nizam Shahi, Prime Minister Malik Amber in 1610. When the Nizam Shahi Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal empire. Aurangazeb made Aurangabad as the military and administrative headquarters of the Mughal viceroyalty in the Deccan. In 1720, Asaf Jah Nizam- ul-Malk made Aurangabad as the first capital of his kingdom in the Deccan. Some of the important medieval monuments at Aurangabad are – the Kali Masjid, the Jami Masjid and Bibi Ka Maqbara, a beautiful tomb of the wife of Aurangzeb Aurangabad was also famous for its fabrics of silk and cotton.
Located in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh, Ayodhya is one of the seven sacred cities for the Hindus. The ancient town of Ayodhya was also known as Saketa and is supposed to be the birth place of the epic hero Rama. In the 6th century B. C. it was the capital of the Southern Kosala.
Located in Bijapur district of Karnataka, Badami was the capital of Chalukyas and is famous for its cave temples which were excavated by the Chaulukyas in the 6th and 7th centuries and by their political successors – the Rashtrakutas between the 7th and 9th centuries. The cave temples at Badami are Brahamanical and Jain. In all there are four large cave temples. Three are Brahmanical and the fourth is the Jain.
Situated in Hassan district of Karnataka. Belur was an ancient place of pilgrimage and therefore was also called as a Dakshina-Varanasi, It emerged as a great city under the Hoysalas, who built numerous temples – of them the Chinnakeshava temple is one of the finest specimens of the Hoysala architecture and sculpture.
Besanagar or Vidhisha (Bhilsa)
Situated in Madhya Pradesh on the banks of river Betwa, Vidhisha, Bhilsa or Besanagar figure prominently in the Buddhist, Jain and Brahmanical literature. It lay on the main route from the North to South and was also connected to Western India and Northern India alike. On account of its exalted commercial position Vidhisha was one of the richest cities of ancient India. Ashoka as a Prince stayed here as a Governor. Numerous dynasties of ancient India from the Mauryas to the Shungas and Indo-Greeks, were intimately connected with Vidhsha. From here several antiquities have been found, most important being the Guruda-Dhwaja erected by the great King Heliodorous.
Presently the capital of Orissa, Bhubaneswar is a very ancient city having a continued history from 2nd century B. C. to the 16th century A. D. and provides a panorama of the Orissian art. The most famous ancient monument of Orissa is the famous Lingaraja temple which has been acclaimed as one of the finest Hindu temples in India. This temple was built in the 7th century A. D.
Located on the Maharashtra-Karnataka border. Bijapur is the headquarters of a district of the same name in Karnataka. It was an important town under the Chalukyas of Badami and the Yadavas of Devagiri. After the foundation of the Bahamani Kingdom, Bijapur formed part of their Kingdom. When the Bahmani Kingdom declined and disintegrated, Sultan Yusuf Hi Khan founded an independent Adil Shahi, Kingdom with Bijapur as its cap tal. Till the annexation of the Adil Shahi Kingdom to the Mughal Empire by Aurangzeb in 1686, Bijapur remained a rich and prosperous town and one of the best known capital cities of South India. The Adil Shahi Sultans were great patrons of art and architecture. The city boasts of over 20 mosques 20 tombs and atleast as many palaces of the Adil Shahi period. Of those themost outstanding monument is the Gol Gumbaj which is the second largest dome in the world. The Bijapur school of painting is regarded as the best school of Deccani painting.
Bodh-Gaya or Buddha Gaya
Situated about 10 kms. to the South of Gaya in Bihar. Bodh-Gaya is one of the most scred spot in the history of Buddhism (where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment under the celebrated people or Bodhi Tree). The most famous monument at Bodh-Gaya is the famous Mahabodhi temple built in the 2nd century . There are also numerous other Buddhist Chaityas and stupas particularly of the Pala period.
Continue Reading : Historic Cultural Places and Famous Monuments of India (C-F)