Tuesday, June 5, 2012


LORD RIPPON (1880- 1884) Lord Ripon came to India to place ointment on the wounds given by the Lytton from his policies. His policies were:

  1. Repealed Vernacular press act

  2. Reduction in salt duty

  3. Appointment of hunter commission

  4. Local self-Government

  5. Factory act 1881











Lytton has put a ban on local newspaper in India and this has annoyed intellectual class in India. So when ripon came to India he repealed vernacular press act under which the newspapers in local languages in india got the right of reprinting but the additional feature of this act was that if anything is written about government it should be edited by government officials.



Before independence salt was luxurious item in spite of India having vast resources. It is evident from the concept of 'Namak-halali' as salt is a commodity of day to day use from aristocratic class to common man. As common man was annoyed on the issue of Delhi durbar so in this situation ripon reduces salt duty by 1% which lowered the price of salt in market and this was way to appease common man in India.


As education is the soul of family, society and nation. Apart from it education is lifeline of middle class as it is best and easy medium to change the social strata. Ripon was aware about it so he appointed hunter commission to review the situation of primary education in India. After the recommendation of commission number of primary schools was established in different parts of the country and this sigh of relief to educated middle class.


The biggest aspirations of Indians were to have share in their government and administration and ripon fulfilled it by giving the gift of local self-government. Under this autonomous charge of local bodies like Municipal Corporation, District Boards etc. were given to Indians. Although Indians got entry in nursery but then it was a good beginning and this was appeasement for nationalist in India.



First factory act of 1881 was not a step of ointment but indirectly it was a move to control emerging tide of Indian industries as cheap labor in specialty of India. So through this act rules and regulations were framed for labor class although it was done on humanitarian ground but the objective was to control labor and rise the prices of Indian product.



Legal system in India before 1861 has two types of laws i.e. British law in urban areas and Mughal law in rural areas but after 1861 legal uniformity as Indian penal code was introduced in India.

In this situation of legal uniformity important event that took place was Bihari Lal Gupta episode. Mr Gupta was judge of lower court and promoted to session court. Although he was promoted but he still lack the right to judge European offenders in this circumstance he made request to viceroy that promotion without the increase in rights is useless. This was understood by ripon and law member of his council. C.P. Ilbert proposed a bill called Ilbert bill whose motive was to bring Indian judges at par with European judges. This created hue-cry among Europeans.

Irrespective of all their differences the entire white community united and they not only abuse Indians but they compelled ripon to amend the bill and lastly to resign. In this way Ilbert bill controversy gave two messages to Indians

  1. Racial attitude of British

  2. Importance of unity



This message became turning point in Indian freedom struggle as Indian thought if European can unite and pressurize the government then why cannot we and this led to beginning of National Convention in India once again under the leadership of surrender nath banarjee and Indian association. National convention requires finance and this led to birth of National fund in 1882. In these circumstances of National convention and National fund gave birth to Indian National Congress in 1885. So next article will be Indian National Congress.


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