Monday, May 28, 2012

LORD LYTTON (1876-1880)

LORD LYTTON (1876-1880)Lord Lytton was a very literate personality as he was essayist, novelist, poet etc. He was given the title of "Owen Meredith" and because of all his achievement he was appointed to handle external and internal threat but his reactionary policies proved fatal for Lytton in British Empire.

 

The important policies of Lytton were:

  1. VERNACULER PRESS ACT 1878: Press act as a safety valve for government because it informs the people about the policies of government and also inform the government about the reaction of the people. It is a critic of Government and its policies which enable the government to understand its flaws. In this situation when Lytton came to Indian, he enacted vernacular press act by which he imposed ban on local newspapers in local languages like Amrit bazar patrika a Bengali newspaper turn towards English to protect itself from this act. In this way Lytton put a stone slab on chimney of house it was resented by intellectual class in India which is evident when Surinder Nath Banarjee called it a "Bolt from Blue".

  2. ARMS ACT: Under this Lytton declare that Indians will require a license to keep the arms while Europeans were exempted from it in this way he created pressure on the exploited section and liberated the robbers. The annoyed the prosperous section in India

  3. DELHI DURBAR : After 1857 British crown was real Bose of the nation so to give it a official declaration Lytton organized Delhi durbar in owner of queen victoria of England he invited her to give her the title of empress of India "Kaizer-i-Hind" but at this time India was suffering from famine and Lytton himself appointed Strachey commission to review the situation of famine. Commission recommended immediate state help to the people but Lytton make the excuse of lack of funds but at same time he spended huge amount of money on "Pomp and Show' of Delhi durbar which became pain for common man in India

  4. REDUCTION IN IMPORT DUTIES: In 1947 when India was born nation and economy both were infant therefore India opted for closed economy to protect its economy and nation. Similarly industrial revolution took place in Europe in 1750 but in India it occurs after 1850's like 1st cotton mill in Bombay in 1854, jute mill in Bengal ( rishra) 1855 so India was 100 year back from Britain and in this situation Indian industrial sector was infant and it require protection and patronage from the government but instead of this Lytton reduced import duties to minimum level which flooded Indian market with foreign goods and this was a attack on emerging industrial sector in India

  5. REDUCTION IN AGE LIMIT OF CIVIL SERVICES: In spite of all barriers Indian were penetrating into civil services and this was emerging challenge for British government so to overcome it Lytton reduce the age from 21 years to 19 years which annoyed the educated middle class of India and gave a new dimension to freedom struggle in India because it was the first issue on which all India propaganda was carried out surrender nath Banerjee. This reflects the emerging Indian sentiment among the people of India.

  6. II afghan war: The second afghan war was completely a failure as he wasted both Indian men and money.


 

By all his policies Lytton annoyed each and every section of Indian society like



  1. By vernacular press act he annoyed intellectual section in India

  2. By arms act he annoyed prosperous section of India

  3. By Delhi durbar he annoyed common man of India

  4. By reduction in import duty he annoyed industrial sector of India

  5. By reduction in age of civil services he annoyed educated middle class in India


In this way policy of Lytton turned seed of freedom struggle into seedling. He was immediately called back and as a psychological move liberal Rippon was appointed in India.




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