Sunday, May 27, 2012

Government of India act 1858

Important provisions of act of 1858 are: - 

  1. End of dual government

  2. Appointment of Imperial civil service commissioner (ICS)

  3. Beginning of Responsible government



End Of Dual Government


The act of 1858 ended dual government. Before 1857 there were two masters of India.

  • Board of control (on behalf of British crown)

  • Court of directors (on behalf of east India Company)


Battle of Buxer took place in 1764. In 1765 east India company got Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa by Mughal emperor Shah Alam.In 1767 company promised to British crown to give share of 4 lakh pound per year but due to certain reasons company faced financial crises, therefore themselves asked the loan of 10 lakh pound from bank of England and this paved the path for British crown penetration in company’s achievement. Which is evident with the coming of regulation act of 1773.

Later on 1780, they struggle with two dangerous powers in India that is Mysore and Maratha's which increased the crisis again and led to formation of Board of control in 1784,therefore from 1784-1857 there were two masters of India and this was the biggest cause for the exploitation of India.

The act of 1858 ended dual government and India came under the charge of secretary of state. First secretary of state was Charles Wood.

Positive impact:-Till now India see monarchy, but for first time India got democratic head with its 15 member council.

Dissatisfaction:-The office of secretary of state situated in London, therefore master was away from the state.

 

Appointment Of Imperial Civil Service Commissioner


Civil Servant in the initial phase were appointed by the court of director, So they use to be pro east India company and this was pain for Board of control. To overcome this pain two acts were passed.

  1. Charter act of 1813:- In this act crown declared the talent will be the base of selection but as there was monopoly of court of directors, the real issue was still not solved.

  2. Charter act of 1853:- In this act examination became the medium of selection. After 1857 the of East India company ends in India and crown due to importance of civil services adopted it with a new name ICS.


Civil services considered as the steel frame work of the nation. Modern civil service was started by Robert Clive in 1765. At that time it was called as covenanted civil services (CCS).

But Lord Cornwallis is called as the father of modern civil services because he established civil services on the basis of separation of powers.

Separation of powers

  1. District judge: - Head of judiciary

  2. District collector: - head of Revenue

  3. Superintended of police: - To maintain law and order


Positive impact: - India got modern administration.

Dissatisfaction: -

Crown not allowed Indians to join Civil Service?

British Crown did not allow to join civil services the reason behind it was crown still have the motive of suppression and exploitation of the nation but it was not possible for them to directly stop Indians so they opted back door policy and refrained Indians from their own higher services. The evidence was that examination was started in 1853 but the first Indian selected in 1864 after 11 years was Satyender nath banarjee. This is because:-

  1. Examination center was in London

  2. Latin was compulsory language

  3. Horse riding was compulsory



Beginning Of Responsible Government


Before the Act of 1858 India had monarchy it means absolute despotism ( there is only one king) but with this act India got democracy it means responsible government.

Beginning of responsible government by the act of 1858, when the act declared the secretary of the state can be sued for his act in India. Although it was a good beginning when responsible government was introduced in India, but it prove to be mockery for the Indian people because in 1858 when 80% of the people were illiterate and India was slave it was not possible for the common man to go against the highest authority.

Positive impact:- India got the responsible government.

Dissatisfaction:-   It was not possible for Indian people at that time to go against the highest authority.


Reaction Of Educated Middle Class Towards The ACT Of 1858


No doubt about the act of 1858 that started constitutional development in India but it was frustrated the Indian people specially educated middle class and every action has equal and opposite reaction. So educated middle class started reaction against the British Empire through political organizations but it seems that empire appealed that they are busy in extinguishing a great fire that is 1857. So Indians should wait and have patience and as empire will come out of the trouble it will try to fulfill the aspiration of Indians and this led to the coming of next act that is Act of 1861.




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