Monday, March 16, 2015

Rice, Noodles and Seafood – #FarMoreSingapore

Singapore is one small country with variety of food cuisine. On my stay last month I got the chance to stay in one of the best places to visit for a foodie like me – Singapore, where people eat more than five times a day and you will hear every other person telling about a better porridge, noodles or seafood at their favorite place.

No matter where you are in Singapore, you will always find yourself surrounded with foodies who really care about they eat. One of the best noodles I ever had was in Singapore, they mix different things, the recipes are unimaginable to our kind of people but when they finish cooking it comes out as something really awesome.

If you are in Singapore then don’t forget to visit Hawker Centers, Kopitiams, Cze Chas and of course other food courts. Singapore is one of most warm welcoming places for Westerners, if you know how to speak English then it’s really easy to get around and interact with people. Local people will guide you towards the best eating joints, plus their open food courts (Hawker Centers) are full of fun & life.

Although there are loads of dishes like Tamarind Fish, Bubur Cha-cha, Singapore Sling, Hainanese chicken rice and a lot more which will become your favorite the very first time your taste buds feel them but I loved Singaporean Noodles more than anything, plus they are easy to make and real time saver too.

If you have ever visited Singapore then am sure you would have eaten this yummy noodle dish, mostly sold by street hawkers. Luckily I was able to get the recipe of it which am going to share with you all. Read carefully because there a little tips & tricks that makes all the difference between normal noodles and Singaporean Noodles. :D

Singaporean Noodles

It will take just 10 minutes to prepare this amazing dish and can be made with ease. A little tip is to mix curry powder with some water to make a paste as dry powder burns fast in hot oil and tastes bitter. Don’t drain the noodles, instead take them out of the water using your hands and while frying keep a cup of water ready with you to sprinkle so that they don’t get dry and break up into pieces.


  • 2 eggs, lightly beaten

  • 4–6 tsp hot curry powder

  • 2 cups bean sprouts

  • 300 g rice vermicelli

  • ½ cup vegetable oil

  • 250 g green (raw) prawns, shelled and deveined

  • 1 medium onion, chopped

  • 1 red capsicum, cut into fine strips

  • 3 tbsp light soy sauce

  • salt and freshly ground black pepper

  • 1 tbsp sesame oil

  • sprigs of coriander, to garnish


Soak Vermicelli in cold water for 10-15 minutes and in the meantime heat 1 teaspoon of oil in a frying pan. Fry the prawns for a minute or two till they turn pinkish in color and then remove them into a bowl. Again heat two teaspoons of oil and fry the onion and capsicum in it. Remove them with the prawns and add eggs to the pan & cook them like an omelette. Cut it into thin slices and keep it aside.

Now add some more oil to the pan and mix the curry paste prepared already with noodles which you took out of water with your hands instead of draining the water. Fry them together and then add the onion –capsicum mixture, cutted out omelette, prawns and some soya sauce with salt & pepper as per taste. Fry and stir it for 4-5 minutes and you are ready to go.

Serve in plates, sprinkle some sesame oil and garnish with coriander.

I hope you guys will enjoy it to the fullest, although am sure you will. If you are not planning to visit Singapore anytime soon then also don’t worry… you can find a good no. of crazy recipes like this on and can prepare & enjoy the delicious flavor of Singapore Cuisines.

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Hope, small steps and the Goal

Everyone have their own problems in life, everyone have their own goals to achieve. Everybody is tensed with the ongoing situations, everybody wants to do something more to make their loved ones happy.

Work, Money and love are what our life revolves around. People want to provide for their family, their loved ones so they work hard to fulfill the wishes of their friends & family. This was the basic idea of going to office and working every day, but looking at the current scenario people have indulged themselves into work & money so much that they have forgotten the real meaning of living. Working 9 hours a day, 6 days a week we hardly get time to spend a minutes or two with our family and the stress level due to increasing competition gulps even those few minutes which we get to spend with our families. With this fast pace life we have forgotten the real meaning of happiness and the question we need to ask ourselves is why we started all this in the first place?

This above mentioned practice leads to misery kills our hope and drains out the happiness from our life. Just stop for a moment - #lookup and see... the blue sky, the chirping of birds, the smile of your friends and family. Realize why you are here and how much you mean to them. Cherish your relationships and find a way to balance it all.

Even if you fail at something... its ok.. you still have people who love you... life moves on.. Move with it... start again by taking small steps towards your goal. I myself struggled to get a job for almost a year, got rejected at interviews and failed miserably but as soon as I used to reach home, I used to see my mom waiting for me... smiling and ready with the food to fill my stomach. She is most supportive I hve ever seen and never asked me how things went. She kept my hope alive with her smile and her wise words... and the day I got my first job, the happiness I saw on her face became one of the best memories of my life which filled me with immense happiness.

World is filled with positivity, you just need to look at it. As elusive as it may seem, optimism can be found all around - in the laughter of children, in the excitement on your pet's face when you get back after a long day, and in the smile of your loved ones when you go back home after months of being away. Enter the optimism of this positive world with who believe in bringing optimism to the world. Break Free from your daily routine, take a breath and let the positivity of this world reach you! :)

Take Risks - Move Ahead - #StartANewLife

In this world everything keeps on changing... Day changes to night, winters changes to summers, hot changes to cold and what not. People who don't love change always live in fear... Fear of taking risks... fear of losing what they have... Guess what??? No matter how much they try they still lose... Change overcomes their life and then they feel sad, angry & frustrated about it.

If we already know that no matter how much we try things will not remain as they are today and will eventually change then why don't we start accepting it and love whatever life has to throw at us ? Good Change signifies that we're moving forward, living better, and giving ourselves the chance to be the best we can possibly be. Changes don’t always seem to be good but they eventually turn out for our better only. Trust yourselves, take risks, and move ahead towards a new life.

I know saying is easy, getting ready for it seems tough. I have been through the same situation. After I cleared my high school I got admission in a good technical college which was 250 kms away from my home. With the wish of becoming a software engineer I joined the college but as I had never lived my life alone & going away from my parents to place so far for the first time was a big, challenging and a scary step to take. It gave me sleepless nights for a week with lots of questions in my mind like where I will live? How will I live? Will I get a good roommate or not? How will I live away from my parents? Will I get all the basic amenities like I get at home there or not? Etc. In this last week I read an article online which talked about The Change, how it is happening continuously throughout the world which cannot be stepped and how it is for the better. It motivated me to take the up challenge, take the risk of going alone and move ahead with my life which was the best decision I made for myself in my life.

I requested my parents to not to travel with me and insisted on going alone. I boarded the train alone, travelled 250 kms journey by myself (i travelled so far alone for the first time) and after reaching that city searched for a place to live, searched for a place to eat, moved into a flat. Kept my belongings safely and next day got ready & attended first day of my college.

Though it scares everyone to think and be ready about the change.. I too was scared but once I got ALL IN and dealt with it, I realized it was fun and was for my better only. It gave me courage to travel anywhere alone and a sense of freedom and success.

In that whole incident the most exhausting and difficult task was to find a place to stay after I reached the city. As technology has taken over the world with everything available online now you don't need to search for a house, flat manually by going house by house to examine the accommodations yourself. has taken up the initiative to convert this search to digital form where you can search your requirement accommodation and rent it even before visiting the place. Their staff works day and night to provide this service and their hardwork can be seen in the video below. Do have a look at it and do take risks in your life, as Change is for your own Good. :)



We Walk... #Together

Having a true companion in your life is a Blessing, which I pray everyone to get but not all people are that lucky. Please spend a lot of time in finding their true love, some are able to find it... and some still struggle. Those who get it, re-live their life to the fullest with that blessing but not everyone is not able to live forever it.

People lose their loved ones due to various reasons, which happen to become one of the saddest moments of their lives. But that is the way of life, sometimes you are so happy that you wish the day shouldn't end and sometimes you are so sad that a single passing minute feels like a year. There are hard times and then there are happy memorable times, but having the one who stays and helps you in both these times (hard & happy) is the one in the presence of whom you are really blessed.

Last time I was struggling to get a job, it had been more than a year I passed my college and was living without a job. Being jobless in our society is a curse. That was the time when I used to get frustrated, angry and feel sorry for myself and ashamed of being me. Although I have the most supportive and awesome parents in the world which never taunted me or asked me that why am not getting a job but I was still able to see the tension in their eyes worrying about the future of their son.

In those tough times the only moment I used to feel happy was when I used to chat with my love... The one who has supported me throughout my tough time... Even uptill today. Everyday our chats ended up with my telling her that I am a failure in life and she should move on and her saying that it’s just a job, you already are a blogger.... you don't need a job.. Screw the world... Focus on what you like. She always believed in me and told me that I will get a job... a good job and it’s just a matter of time. With these little motivations and happiness I used to get, I was able to sleep peacefully in those nights and wake up with energy to try again. After a little struggle of few months, I finally got a job in the year end with a good salary package (won't reveal it: P) and one of the hurdles of my life got removed.

That was one of the toughest times of my life uptill now; the pressure... the shame... the sense of being a failure would have drowned me into unimaginable bad situations if I was not having the support and the company of my Blessing - the love of my life... Tishya. It’s not always what they say or what they advise... sometimes simply their presence means everything and gives you the courage & motivation to try again, getting pass through the tough time and looking forward for the good life ahead.

Speaking of looking forward to my good life ahead, as I have got the job now am looking to forward to the next step (which I suppose you all know what it is), so while planning for it last night I started searching for good rental accommodations to live in and came across where I found a good amount of listings filtered to my preferences of place, rent and size out of which I have shortlisted a few and will visit them this weekend.

I hope you guys soon get your blessing and get to feel what the power of being #together is!

Saturday, November 29, 2014

The power of voice to clean India

Have you ever seen hollywood movies? I am sure you would have loved the background views of new york city, paris and other places shown in them and would love to vist them.if you get a chance. Do you know why we love those places so much? Its because we see the views which we have never seen India, the damn clean places complimented by thenawesome environment they have created for themselves. Like Greece, Rome and other counties India is rich too in culturak heritage with its marvelous monuments and everything still we are not able to create that environment for ourselves because of one and only one reason - we don't love our cities as much as we love our homes.

We Indians do everything to clean our homes from sweeping to vaccum cleaners, putting garbage in dustbins and teaching our childrens the same we do the same when we are outside our homes? trying to keep our surroundings clean, scolding our children if they litter around? The answer is no, we always blame our politicians and Municipality for not keeping the city clean but we never realize that municipality never throws garbage on streets, they clean it and its we who keeps on adding the garbage continously. Its we who need to change. Our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi has started the Swach Bharat Mission recently and its us who can bring the change.
Participating in this.mission doesn't onoy means picking up litter and cleaning your surroundings from time to time, it also means being a responsible citizen and raising your voice against people & authorities who are not working responsibly. Our government provides these organisations a large some of money every for cleaniness purposes and manyatimes we see that these organisations dont work up to the required mark. One should realize that its ones hard earned money that is being collected in form taxes and being given to these authorities, be responsible and raise your voice against the wrong. Every citizen as the fundamental right to speak and that is a power, power of speech that we all should exercise...
Keeping this in mind strepsils has started a campaign with hashtag #AbMontuBolega , details of which are available on , visit the link and participate in their ongoing competitions and raise your voice. You can also join them on their twitter and facebook pages. This is your chance to be a part of something big, join it , tell your friends about it and be proud of it.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

A Click for Cleaner & Safer India

India is one of the fastest developing countries in the world with a population of 1.2 Billion (as per census 2011), still we lack behind in lots of things which are often ignored by the people like cleanliness, safe water drinking facilities, women safety and sanitation facilities. 597 million people in our country still defecate out in the open mainly due to lack of sanitation facilities and lack of knowledge of how it harms their health and hygiene & results in feeble diseases of their loved ones.

The first step is to understand that defecating out in open harms only us. The urine and stool lying around in the open spreads bacteria and creates pollution which results in unhealthy environment & spreading of diseases for the people living in nearby areas.

Second step is to provide proper sanitation facilities to the people and motivate them to use it. Our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi has initiated steps towards this and has allocated Rs. 100 crores in current economic budget to provide proper sanitation facilities in the rural areas. The Swach Bharat Abhiyaan aimr at keeping our city and villages clean and motivates people to take initiatives in keeping their surroundings clean & spread awareness on the same.

Many private companies have also come forward and have taken initiatives for building up of toilets and their maintenance for public use. Domex, HUL's flagship brand has also come to the rescue and has decided to build toilets under the Domex Toilet Academy Programme. They have already brought the change in villages of Maharashtra & Orissa in last one year and aim at building 24000 toilets by 2015 in rural areas which face problem of open defecation. Domex is currently running a campaign #ToiletForBabli and you can help bring change in lives of millions of children by tweeting your views with hashtag #ToiletForBabli. You can also support the Domex Initiative by clicking on the "Contribute Tab" on . For every click you make Domex will contribute Rs. 5 on your behalf towards the cause eradicating open defecation. So go ahead and do a click for cleaner & safer India.

A cleaner India will not only keep us and our children healthy but will change the perspective in which the whole world sees us, which will result in increase in no. of tourists and foreign investors from all over the world, thus resulting in a boost to our economical growth.

Lets do our bit in contribution and move towards a cleaner India, a better INDIA.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Mary Parker Follet

Mary Parker Follet occupies a prominent place in the community of thinkers on administrative thoughts though she is less known in comparison to other thinkers. She initiated studies on industrial groups. Traditionally the social and political scientists concentrated on the studies of the state or the society but her studies were concentrated on the industry. She evolved principles of human association and organization in the context of industry. Her prominent works include The Speaker of the House of Representatives (1909), The New State (1920), Creative Experience (1924) and Dynamic Administration (1941). Dynamic Administration was posthumously edited by Metcalf and Urwick. Her views will be discussed under the following heads:

Idea of Constructive Conflict & the Ways of Resolving It

Follet gives quite important place to conflicts in her writings. According to her, conflicts are result of "socially valuable differences" and these are normal processes which may occur in any activity of the organization. Conflict should not be seen with any biases. It is neither good nor bad. It is just the appearance of difference which should be capitalized upon. As all polishing is done by friction, similarly conflicts could also be constructive and could enrich all. Follet gives three ways of dealing with conflict. These are described below:
A. Domination - It means victory of one side over the other. This seems to be the easiest way of resolving conflicts but it is not successful in the long run. The "repressed wishes" of the dominated always rebel against the dominator whenever it is possible.
B. Compromise - People settle most of their conflicts through compromise only. Each party to the conflict gives up a little in this method to resolve it. This quite wide accepted way of resolving conflict still people are reluctant to go for it as it involves losing something.
C. Integration - In this method two desires are integrated and there is no need to sacrifice its desires on any side. Follet favors this method of resolving conflict in comparison to other two methods. Domination is not preferable due to obvious reasons, compromise does not create something new but integration gives rise to the new ideas and innovation in social relationships. Integration also solves the problem permanently as it strikes at the root of the problem. In sum, integration is "win all" situation.

Steps in the Process of Integration

Follet told the following steps in the process of integration. These are as follows:

  1. The first step is to bring the differences into open instead of suppressing them. The immediate necessity in resolving conflict is to understand and identify the nature of conflict.

  2. Second step is to divide the whole conflict into smaller constituent parts. Sometimes the opposite process may be followed.

  3. Third step is the anticipation of the conflict. It means knowing which way the conflict would head once the proposals are prepared and presented to the parties. It is like a game of chess where all moves are pre-calculated. "Circular" not linear response is required in anticipation of conflict.

Though Follet proposes integration as the way to resolve conflicts permanently still is alive to the problems in the whole process. Lack of inventiveness, habit of enjoying domination and use of proper language etc. are some of the problems. She emphasises on the proper training to resolve all these issues. According to her, courses on the art of co-operative thinking should be there both for the managers as well for the workers to master the art of integration.

The Law of Situation: Depersonalising Orders

Follet was concerned about too much of "Bossism" in giving orders. To avoid it she was suggested depersonalising orders. For this law of situation was proposed by Follet. According to this law, the order should not be given by one person to the other, rather both the order giver and the order taker should take the order from the situation. This law gives importance to the authority of the situation rather than the authority of the individual. Further Follet insists that the orders should be integral to the situation I. e. they should keep pace with the situation and should not be static. This will be possible only when the orders are taken from the situation and not externally.

Concept of "Power-with" rather than "Power over"

Follet terms power as the "ability to make things happen, to be a causal agent, to initiate change". She distinguishes "power-over" from "power-with". The former represents coercive power while the latter represents the co-active power. Power-with is better as people wish to be seen as working with someone rather than under someone. Also it promotes better understanding, reduces friction and encourages co-operation. According to Follet it is not possible for people to get rid of power over concept. But this can be accomplished by following the law of situations, functional unity and integration. Functional unity means that within his own sphere of functions, everyone has authority and responsibility for accomplishing those functions.

Functional Unity: Authority of Function

As already mentioned, functional unity means that for each allotted function each has authority and responsibility which go with that function. Further as authority rests with the function and not with the individual, authority/power cannot be delegated. Power is the result of knowledge and ability so it cannot be delegated. According to Follet, derivation of authority from some central authority should be replaced by the "authority of function" in which each individual has final authority within the allotted functions. Authority can be conferred on others but this is not delegation. According to her, delegation of authority should be an "obsolete expression". Like authority responsibility also flows from the situation. In the overall scheme of the things according to functional unity, the question that should be asked is "for what is he responsible rather than to whom is he responsible".

Concept of Leadership according to Follet

According to Follet the concept of leadership has also undergone significant changes due to the changing circumstances and new concepts such as human relations etc. Leadership does not come from the official status or position but from the attributes like encouraging initiative and energizing group. According to her such people are not just found at positions of power but throughout the organisation. She categorises three types of leaderships - leadership of position, leadership of personality and leadership of function. In modern organisations, those possess expert knowledge & skills and not the ones who have formal authority and personality actually lead. This is due to the fact that they take leadership due to the situation. It is the reason they can give orders even to
those in higher ranks. Follet lists three important functions of a leader. These are - coordination, definition of purpose and anticipation.

Critical Evaluation of Mary Parker Follet

Mary Parker Follet is called as one of the earliest behavioralists as she was among the earlier scholars to analyze the organizational behavior. Still some writers on organization theory have classified her as 'classical' thinker. She was criticized for not seeing the organizational processes in the social context. Some scholars regard her inconsistent in her approach as her ideas were not well organized. She analyzed the process of conflict resolution in detail and gave a new concept of integration. She negated the "Trait Theory" of leadership and advanced the situational variable to leadership. She conceived leadership to be function of three variables - the leader, followers and the situation. Situational control was the best form of control according to her.
Follet also gave the concept of "Cumulative Responsibility" which should be imbibed in the workers. According to this concept, realization of just the individual responsibility is not enough rather the workers should be made to realize "joint responsibility" which sensitizes them towards other units also. This automatically solves the problem of co- ordination also.
Due to her multi-dimensional focus, Urwick has described Follet as a "woman who had a universal mind." Though her ideas on integration were termed as illusory as they were good to look at but difficult to achieve still her contributions were phenomenal and she was in fact ahead of her times.

Saturday, June 7, 2014

Reorganisation of States

The British rulers in India had formed the provinces from time to time on ground of expediency. After the merger of states, a number of new administrative units were created. Therefore, there was an immediate need for the

'Reorganisation of States’ on scientific lines, "so that the welfare of the people of each constituent unit as well the nation as a whole is promoted". In 1948, the Linguistic Provinces Committee known as the Dar Committee was appointed to examine the demands for the creation of linguistic states. The Dar Committee opposed the creation of linguistic states on the ground that nationalism and sub- nationalism were two emotional experiences which grew at the expense of each other. The report of this committee was strongly opposed by the supporters of the linguistic states. In this connection, the strongest agitation was launched in the Telugu speaking areas of the then Madras State. After the death of Potti Sriramulu, the leader of the agitation in that area, the situation became so tense that the Government of India was forced to create the state of Andhra as the first linguistic State in India. Subsequently, numerous agitations were launched in different linguistic regions for the creation of respective linguistic states. Though the Government of India initially opposed division of the country on the basis of language, ultimately Prime Minister Nehru made a statement in the Parliament on December 22, 1953, to the effect that a Commission would be appointed to examine “objectively and dispassionately” the question of reorganisation of the states of the Indian Union so that the welfare of the people of each constituent unit as well as the nation as a whole is promoted.


The States Reorganisation Commission was headed by Mr Fazl Ali and its two other members were Pandit Hridayanath Kunzuru and Sardar K. M. Panikar. The Commission submitted its report to the government of India on September 30, 1955. Some of the important recommendations of the Commission were:

  1. The Indian Union was to consist of 16 States as against the existing 27 and three centrally administered territories.

  2. Special safeguards were recommended for linguistic minorities

  3. In the interests of national unity and good administration, the Commission recommended the reconstitution of certain All India Services It further recommended that at least 50 per cent of the new entrants to the All India Services and at least one third of the number of Judges in a High Court should consist of persons recruited from outside that State so that, administration might inspire confidence and help in arresting parochial trends.

  4. The Commission put emphasis on the need for encouraging the study of Indian languages other than Hindi but, for some time to come, English continue to occupy an important place in the universities and institutions of higher learning.

The Commission rejected the demand for the creation of a Punjabi Speaking State (Punjabi Suba) because “the creation of such a state will solve neither the language nor the communal problem”.

The State Reorganisation Act was passed by Parliament in 1956 to give effect to these recommendations. It provided for fourteen States and six Union Territories. But two of the most sensitive areas, Bombay and Punjab, were not reorganised on linguistic basis. The demands for separate tribal states, including Jharkhand and Nagaland, were also by passed.

To express resentment against the Commission’s report with regard to Maharashtra there was fierce rioting and violence under the auspices of two linguistically based organisations, namely, the Samyukta Maharashtra Ekikaran Samiti and the Maha Gujarat Parishad. After three years of trouble, ultimately in 1960, the demands for reorganisation were accepted and Maharashtra and Gujarat were constituted as separate linguistic states with Bombay as part of Maharashtra.

Reorganisation of StatesThe creation of Nagaland as a separate state had its own peculiarities. The Naga tribes along the Assam-Burma border had never been fully controlled by the British and the problem was further complicated on account of the large scale conversion of the Naga tribes to Christianity by American Baptist missionaries. There was a long entrenched rebellion led by the Naga leader A. Z. Phizo, but the traditional leadership of the Naga tribes under the Naga People’s Convention wanted a settlement “within the Indian Union”. Ultimately in 1963, Nagaland was created as a separate State. In Punjab, at the time of partition, the Akali Dal had long demanded a Sikh State, if not an independent Khalistan. The demand for the Punjabi Suba was voiced not in communal but linguistic terms. However, strictly speaking, there was no language problem in Punjab. But the Akali Dal, encouraged by the bifurcation of Bombay in 1960 began agitation for the Punjabi Suba. The agitation continued without any response from the Government. Then in 1966, the State was divided into two parts, Punjab and Haryana. The hilly areas of Punjab were added to Himachal Pradesh, which itself was constituted as an independent state on January 25, 1971.

The map of India has undergone further changes since 1966. In 1975, there was an addition to the territorial boundaries of India in the form of the State of Sikkim, which was till then a protectorate of India. Radical changes have been made in the map of North-Eastern region of India which now has 7 States. Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and Goa, Daman & Diu have been elevated to statehood and at present the Union of India consists of 25 States and 6 Union Territories.

The British rulers in India had formed the provinces from time to time on ground of expediency. After the merger of states, a number of new administrative units were created. Therefore, there was an immediate need for the

'Reorganisation of States’ on scientific lines, "so that the welfare of the people of each constituent unit as well the nation as a whole is promoted". In 1948, the Linguistic Provinces Committee known as the Dar Committee was appointed to examine the demands for the creation of linguistic states. The Dar Committee opposed the creation of linguistic states on the ground that nationalism and sub- nationalism were two emotional experiences which grew at the expense of each other. The report of this committee was strongly opposed by the supporters of the linguistic states. In this connection, the strongest agitation was launched in the Telugu speaking areas of the then Madras State.

After the death of Potti Sriramulu, the leader of the agitation in that area, the situation became so tense that the Government of India was forced to create the state of Andhra as the first linguistic State in India. Subsequently, numerous agitations were launched in different linguistic regions for the creation of respective linguistic states. Though the Government of India initially opposed division of the country on the basis of language, ultimately Prime Minister Nehru made a statement in the Parliament on December 22, 1953, to the effect that a Commission would be appointed to examine “objectively and dispassionately” the question of reorganisation of the states of the Indian Union so that the welfare of the people of each constituent unit as well as the nation as a whole is promoted.

Sunday, May 18, 2014


The Indian Independence Act passed by the British Parliament in July 1947 provided the legal provision for the transfer of power. Its provisions were :

  1. Setting up of ‘two independent Dominions... to be known respectively as India and Pakistan’ on August 15, 1947.

  2. The Indian Dominion would include the whole of British India with the exception of the territories constituting Pakistan, i. e., West Punjab, Baluchistan, North West Frontier Province, Sind and East Bengal

  3. Each Dominion was to have a Governor-General appointed by His Majesty and represent His Majesty for the purpose of the government of the Dominion. The Legislature of each Dominion would have full power to make laws for that Dominion. After August 15, 1947 no Act passed by the British Parliament would have validity in either of the Dominions.

  4. With immediate effect from August 15, 1947, the British Government would cease to have any responsibility for the Government of India. This implied that any terms and agreements made between the British Government with either the Princely States or Tribal areas would also cease to exist.

  5. The two Dominions along with the Provinces would continue to be governed in accordance with the Act of 1935 till the time the Constituent Assembly made alternate arrangements.

  6. It also made provisions for the division of Armed Forces and Civil Services between the two Dominions and each was to exercise authority over its own sections.

  7. A new Constituent Assembly was to be formed in Pakistan which would also exercise the powers of Legislature in that Dominion.

However, in reality things worked out a little differently. To summarize, the Constituent Assembly of the Indian Union met on the night of August 14, 1947 and in a stirring speech by Nehru known as the Tryst with destiny’ India’s independence was declared at the stroke of midnight. Lord Mountbatten was asked by Nehru and Patel to continue as the Governor-General of the newly formed Indian Dominion and he continued the office till June 21, 1948. Rajagopalchari was his first and the last Indian successor till January 25, 1959. On January 26, 1950 India became a Republic and adopted the Constitution framed by the Constituent Assembly that was finalized on November 26, 1949. With this India ceased to have any constitutional links with the British Crown, The office of the governor-General was abolished. The President of the Constituent Assembly and the Head of the Republic, Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India.

Jinnah left for Karachi on August 7, 1947. On August 11 the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan elected him as the first President and on August 14 Jinnah was also sworn in as the Governor-General the newly created Dominion of Pakistan.


The partition of the country and the resultant mass exodus of population to and from the divided nations were not the only grave problems of the newly-born independent India. The British India was divided into provinces and Indian States, ruled by princes, who were bound by treaties to the British Crown. The integration of about 552 big and small Indian States in the Union of India was one of the most serious immediate problems that India had to face on the eve of her independence. The Independence Act, 1947, provided that “the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States, and with it all treaties and agreements in force on that date would lapse”. The act did not contemplate that the Indian States would become ‘Independent States’ as such and thereby disrupt the unity of India. On June 15, 1947, the All India Congress Committee (AICC) laid down its policy towards the Indian States and declared that the AICC cannot admit the right of any State in India, to declare its independence and to live in isolation from the rest of India.

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACTThe Congress was able to tackle the problem of the Indian States successfully and the credit for it goes to Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon. The net result of their efforts was that by August 15, 1947, with the exception of Junagarh, Hyderabad and Kashmir, as many as 136 states acceded to the Indian Union. On August 15, 1947, Junagarh announced her accession to Pakistan and on September 13, 1947, the Government of Pakistan informed the Government of India that she had accepted the accession of Junagarh to Pakistan and also signed a Stand Still Agreement. The accession of Junagarh to Pakistan was condemned by the rulers and people of other States. A panic gripped the Hindus of the State and thousands of Hindus ran away from the State of Junagarh. In September, 1947, the Government of India decided to disperse around Junagarh troops of the acceding States and the Congress leaders of Gujarat established a provisional Government of Junagarh. But when the Junagarh troops entered the State of Mangarol, the Government of India decided to send Indian troops to occupy the State of Mangarol which had acceded to the Dominion of India. In order to prevent a flare up in the State, Junagarh was also taken over on October 22, 1947. When the Nawab of Junagarh found that help from Pakistan was not enough to keep him on the throne, he ran away to Pakistan from the State towards the end of the October, 1947. Ultimately, through a referendum the people of Junagarh decided in favour of merger in the Indian Union.

The position of the Hyderabad was still more difficult. The Nizam of Hyderabad wanted to maintain Dominion Status. When the Government of India put pressure on the Nizam, he started secret negotiations for the merger of Hyderabad with Pakistan. The Nizam’s minister Kasim Razvi who played a leading role in opposing Hyderabad’s merger with the Indian Union, declared that Hyderabad would never surrender its independence and “if the Government of India insisted on a plebiscite, the sword would be the final-arbiter”. Kasim Razvi organised an army of the Razakars, whom he represented as the liberators of the Muslims of India, and started inflaming communal passions inside and outside Hyderabad State. The Razakars began to attack the neighbouring provinces like Madras, Bombay and Central Provinces. There was a virtual reign of terror. There was huge loss of life and property. Attacks on the through trains created panic. It was under these circumstances that the Government of India decided to take police action. On September 13, 1948, Indian forces commanded by Maj. Gen. J. N. Choudhuri entered the Hyderabad State. On the evening of Septembner 17, 1948, the Hyderabad army surrendered. Kasim Razvi was arrested and the Razakars were disbanded. The Nizam’s Government after being badly humbled down and humiliated resigned.

The problem of Kashmir proved to be the most difficult and led to a war between India and Pakistan shortly after independence. State of Jammu & Kashmir has great strategic importance on account of its international boundaries. To its East was Tibet, to the North East was the Sinkiang province of Chine and to the North-West was Afghanistan. The position of Jammu & Kashmir was still more peculiar, because the Maharaja of Kashmir Hari Singh was a Hindu and his subjects in Kashmir were predominantly Muslims, in Jammu Hindus and in Ladakh Buddhists. Since Jammu & Kashmir’s accession to any Dominion was to be decided by ascertaining the wishes of the majority of the people, the Maharaja kept on wavering in taking a decision to join either of the two Dominions.

Shortly before 15 August, 1947 the Government of Jammu & Kashmir announced its intention of entering into Stand Still Agreement both with India and Pakistan. Pakistan soon signed a Stand Still Agreement, but with an ulterior motive. It used diplomatic, political and military pressures on Jammu & Kashmir and also aroused communal passions. Pakistan also cut off vital supplies to the State. Soon after this Pakistan tribal raiders and regular Pakistan forces raided Kashmir from different sides.

Under such critical situation the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir sent on appeal for help to the Government of India on October 24, 1947. After two days (October 26) the Maharaja of Kashmir signed an Instrument of Accession for merging Jammu & Kashmir with the Union of India. Next day (October 27) the Indian troops were airlifted to Kashmir to expel the Pakistani raiders. It was to the great courage and chivalry of the Indian troops that within a few months the Pakistani raiders were expelled from Leh and Ladakh to Baramula and Poonch. Finally, at the intervention of the United Nations cease fire was declared on January 1, 1949.

Inspite of long efforts under the auspices of the U. N. and three wars (1947-48, 1965 and 1971) between India and Pakistan, the Kashmir problem still remains unresolved and is a painful thorn in the body-politic of India.

Integration and Democratisation of States

The accession of States with the Indian Union was only a partial solution of the problem of the States. After centuries-long feudal administration, the States needed democratisation and modernisation. To that end in view several smaller states were consolidated into larger political units by means of the union of the States. Some states were merged into neighbouring provinces or make centrally administered areas. In the unions of the states and the centrally administered areas the people of the States were given the rights as enjoyed by the people of the provinces concerned. But this arrangement, was not only unrealistic and against the principles of administration, but even detrimental to the unity and integration of India. Therefore, the Government of India appointed ‘The States Reorganisation Commission’ in November 1953.

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Rise of Muslim Communalism and Partition of India

Centuries before the British rule in India, the Hindus and Muslims had lived together without any bitterness and the century’s long cordial interactions and inter-relations between the two communities led to the growth of rich composite culture. But with the coming of the British, the Indian social scenario, where all communities had been living undiluted understanding, love and regard for each other, was caught in the whirlpool of bitter misunderstanding and communal discord.

The communal problem in India is of recent origin later half of the 19th century. Moreover, the communal problem at its base was more politically motivated than religiously oriented. The founding fathers of the communal triangle in modern India were the British rulers, who were neither the true friends of the Muslims nor the foes of the Hindus. They were true friends of the British Imperialism and acted on the tested the tried maxim of Divide et Impera.

Until the seventies of the 19th century it suited the Imperial interests to support the Hindus and they did it. The British looked upon the Muslims as Chief conspirators in the revolt of 1857. The Wahabi movement confirmed their suspicion. But towards the 1870s, the British policy towards the Hindus perceptibly changed, because politically more volatile Hindus posed a serious threat to the stability of British rule in India.

The Anglo-Indian bureaucracy which worked at the grassroots of British administration in India worked for a change of British policy. Subsequently, the utterances and changing policies of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan also fell in line with the British Imperialism. In 1884, Sir Syed described the Hindus and the Muslims as “two eyes of a beautiful bride, i. e. India”. In sharp contrast with this in 1888, he maintained that "the Hindus and Muslims were not only two nations, but as two warring nations who could never lead a common political life, should ever the British quit India”. A true devotee of the Muslim cause, Syed Ahmad Khan was fully aware of the Muslim backwardness in the fields of education and politics and came to the conclusion that India was not fit for the introduction of Western Political institutions, for his community could not get its due share in it. This fear took the form of the Hinduphobia and loomed large in all subsequent Muslim Political thinking.

Causes for the Growth of Communalism

  1. The Anglo-Indian administrators were quick to work on Muslim apprehensions and strove to drive a wedge between the Hindu and the Muslims. The three British principals of the MAO college, Beck, Morrison and Arch-bold gave the pro-British and anti-Hindu bias to the Aligarh Movement. The Aligarh Movement worked to instill into the minds of the Muslims a spirit of loyalty towards the British Crown and worked consciously and deliberately to keep them away from the main stream of Indian political life.

  2. British writers on Indian history also served the Imperial cause by initiating, developing and emphasizing the Hindu-Muslim approach in their study of Indian history and development of Indian culture. This communal approach to Indian history fostered the communal way of thinking.

  3. The religious reform and revival movements - both the Hindu and Muslim - of the 19th century contained some mutually contradictory aspects. These movements were launched to purge Hinduism and Islam of irrational and obscurest tendencies but these generated some unhealthy tendencies. The Wahabis’ crusade against all non-Muslims and aim to establish Dar-ul-lslam (the world of the Islam) was an odious to Hindus as Dayanand’s slogan of Aryanisation of India and aim of Shuddhi (conversions of non-Hindu to Hinduism) were unpalatable to Muslims.

  4. Similarly the militant nationalists of the early 20th century in their search for ‘national heroes’ and ‘hero myths’ referred to Maharana Pratap, Shivaji and Guru Govind Singh as national heroes and the Muslim rulers like Akbar, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb as ‘foreigners’.

  5. This enormous patronage in higher and subordinate services was cleverly used by the rulers to promote rivalry and discord among different sections of society. “It led to demoralization and conflict and the government could play one group against the other'.

  6. The imperial administrators right from the Secretary of State in England to the District Officer in India, all were convinced that adequate ‘counterpoises’ to the growing strength of the Indian National Congress must be found, if the British rule in India was to be stable. One such counterpoise though about was the official acceptance of the principle of separate Muslim electorates; i. e. reservation of seats for the Muslim community and election to such seats to be made by separate Muslim electorates.

  7. The All India Muslim League was formerly inaugurated on 30 December 1906 primarily to promote among Indian Moslems feelings of loyalty towards the British Government. British Imperial policies in India provided a congenial climate for the emergence growth and popularity of communal organisations. A communal organisation though outwardly organised to promote the interests of a particular community also indirectly promoted British imperial interests apart from serving the personal ambition of opportunistic leadership. This was true not only of the Muslim League but also of the other communal organisations.

  8. As a counterpoise to the Muslim League, a group of Hindus decided to organise the Hindu Mahasabha in 1910. The Hindu Mahasabha never gained that popularity with the Hindu masses as the Muslim League did with the Muslims in India. But the Hindu Mahasabha’s propaganda of a Hindu race, Hindu culture and civilisation and Hidnu Rashtra (nation) in India did harden the Muslim League’s attitude and made it more suspicious and more determined to demand Pakistan. However, it is to be stated that the Muslim League was the first ever communal organisation to come into existence and all other communal organisations in India were born after it, as a counterpoise to each other.

Towards the Demand of a Separate Muslim State

Rise of Muslim Communalism and Partition of IndiaDuring the first decade of the foundation of the League, it worked relentlessly for the continuance of the British rule in India and to that and in view opposed the nationalist activities of the INC. The true political idea behind this thinking of the League was that “If the British rule disappears from India, Hindus will Lord over it; and we will be in constant danger of life, property and honour. The only way for the Muslims to escape this danger is to help in the continuance of the British rule. Let the Muslims consider themselves as a British army ready to shed their blood and sacrifice their lives for the British Crown".

Shortly before the First World War the Muslim League came under the influence of the progressive leaders and as a natural consequence of the events of the First World War - i. e. defeat of Turkey and deposition of the Sultan of Turkey, who was also Caliph of the Islamic world etc., the League came closer to the I. N. C. It entered into a pact (Lucknow Pact) with the INC and supported the non-cooperation movement. But after the suspension of the movement, the League became sworn enemy of the INC and came to adopt bitter communal overtures. By 1934, M. A. Jinnah became its undisputed leader. The British constitutional measures from 1909 to 1935, further widened the gulf between the Hindus and Muslims and the League openly came to vigorously propagate and work for the two nation theory.

When the Second World War broke out the Muslim League, while sympathising with the British, refused to offer its support unless it was recognized as the only representative organization of the Muslims. It also asked for an assurance that no constitution would be framed without the consent and approval of the Muslim League. The League condemned the Provincial Autonomy and bitterly complained that the experience of the past two years had “established beyond doubt” that "the life and liberty, property and honour” of the Muslim minorities under the Congress Government in various provinces were in grave danger and their religious rights and culture were being “as sailed and annihilated every day".

In the early years of the war, the Muslim League remained firm in its attitude of non-cooperation with the British Government. The “August Offer", though not completely satisfactory to the League, allayed their fears of a Congress Raj in India. The League proclaimed that partition of India was the only solution. It was ready to offer co-operation on the acceptance of the ‘two- nation’ theory.

For quite some time a section of the Muslim Intelligentsia was nourishing the idea of a separate independent Muslim State in India. The ideological and political background had of course been prepared by the Aligarh movement, the foundation of the Muslim League, followed by the Morley-Minto reforms, introducing separate electorates. The ’two-nation’ theory had taken deep roots by the end of the 1920s. However, it was Muhammad Iqbal (1873-1938), the well- known poet, who first articulated the demand for a separate Muslim State in the India sub-continent. He was essentially a philosopher and a poet. He presided over the Allahabad Session of the Muslim League in 1930. He said, “I would like to see the Punjab the North-Western Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan, amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British empire or without the British empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims of North-West India”. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that Iqbal “fertilized the soil for the growth of Mr. Jinnah’s Pakistan movement”.

The idea of a separate Muslim State in a new form, was elaborated by a group of young Muslim students in England at the time of the Round Table Conference. One of them, Rahmat Ali, conveyed to the Muslim delegates to the Round Table Conference the scheme of a separate Muslim homeland consisting of the Punjab, North-West Frontier or Afghan Province, Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan. The proposed separate Muslim istate was to be named PAKISTAN (sacred land). The name was derived by taking the first letter of the first four provinces and the end of the last named province. Rahmat Ali founded the Pakistan National Movement in 1933 to propagate the idea. In the early forties when Mr. M. A. Jinnah emerged as the Leader of Muslim League the Pakistan movement gained momentum. He began to propagate that from the view point of history, culture, law and in all other respects the Muslims were different. They were a separate nation. The Muslims had no social and cultural traits in common with the Hindus. The formation of the Congress Ministries in July 1937 saw the emergence of the Muslim League as a major competing force in nation politics. Other Muslim leaders gave a call for Muslim unity and they recognised the personal authority of Jinnah.

Pakistan Resolution

In December 1938, Jinnah made a scathing criticism of the Congress and blamed it for killing "every hope of the Hindu-Muslim settlement in the right royal fashion of Fascism. The Congress, he said, was nothing but a Hindu body and

he held Gandhiji responsible “for turning the Congress into an instrument for the revival of Hinduism”. He accused Gandhiji of trying to establish a “Hindu Raj” in India and utilising the Congress to further that objective. When the Congress Ministries resigned (October-November, 1939) Jinnah was overwhelmed with joy and he appealed to the Muslims all over India to observe December 22, 1939 as the “Day of Deliverance” and thanks giving as a mark of relief that the Congress regime had at last ceased to function. Jinnah’s “propaganda pistol was double- barelled”, trying to mobilise Muslim support with two slogans. The first was that the Congress Government were ruthless with the Muslims. The second was that the Muslims were not a minority but a nation in the sub-continent. His new political thesis were that democratic parliamentary government was un-workable in India; Indian Muslims wanted to develop their own political, economic, social and cultural institutions according to their own genius; the Muslim League was the only representative organization of the Muslims and no constitution was acceptable to them unless it was approved by the Muslim League; Hindus and Muslims being two separate nations, the majority principle which led to the rule of the major nation was unsuitable in India.

In March 1940, the Muslim League in the Lahore Session declared that the Muslims in India must have a separate independent State. In his presidential address M. A. Jinnah declared, "If the British government are really earnest and sincere to secure peace and happiness of the people of the sub-continent, the only course open to us all is to allow the major nations separate homelands by dividing India into autonomous national States”. The Muslim League adopted a resolution in this session, famous as the Pakistan Resolution reiterating its total rejection of the scheme of Federation embodied in the Government of India Act of 1935. It demanded that the areas in which the Muslims had numerical majority “should be grouped to constitute ‘Independent States’ in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign”.

The League, it was not evident, would not be satisfied with anything but the formation of Pakistan as a State of which “Ahmad was the philosopher, Iqbal the prophet and Jinnah the statesman-creator”.

The Muslim League, while welcoming the implicit recognition of the possibility of Pakistan, rejected, the Cripps’ Declaration because it had given greater importance and priority to the creation of one Indian Union. The League reaffirmed its conviction that “the only solution of India’s constitutional problem is the partition of India, into independent zones... ” The Cripps’ proposals had not recognised separate electorates for the constitution-making body.

Reference : Partition Stories - Google Books