Sunday, October 16, 2016

Need of Differentiating Public Administration from Political Science


Basically, to establish Public Administration as a separate discipline, Woodrow Wilson and many other scholars in later 19th century started giving argument that the background and the role of Public Ad. is quite distinct from Political Science. They advanced the following arguments :-

1. Political Science deal with policy formulation and Public Administration with policy implementation.

2. Political System involving policy formulation is based on ideology, philosophy and aspirations of the people. But Public administration concentrates on facts, value-free, neutrality, rationality and objectivity. Therefore, public opinion is representation in political system but not in public administration.

3. Political System deals with decision making, while public administration with advisory role. The decision making by the political system is to be based on the neutral, rational and impartial advice given by he Public Administration.

4. Since political system has to represent the public opinion, politicians are elected. However, since administrative system necessitates competence, knowledge and abilities, administrators are selected.

5. Political systems is temporary, while Public Administration provides stability and continuity to the system. That's why we differential between political executive and permanent executive. Thus though ideology and policy of political groups may change, but the system remains stable continuous.

6. Emerging from the above Point, it states that Public Administration is confined only to executive wing of the government and no the legislative and judicial organs of the government (Horizontal Differentiation).

7. Amateurs vs. Professional : No formal qualifications for members of political system are required. This is not only in India but elsewhere also where administrators are professional people.

However, all these above arguments relating to the difference between Political Science and public administration are not relevant in the present times. This is explained as follows : Policy formulation is based not only on political dimension but also on administrative dimension. Policy formulation can be done without understanding the procedures of policy implementation. Therefore, both are inter-woven. Even this is said that the real policy is actually formed by the administrators to which politicians merely sign.

Similarly, to say that Public Administration deals only with the executive branch of government is wrong. It covers other two organs - legislature and judiciary as well. For instance, the concept of delegated legislation involves the legislative functions by the administrators, and thus indicates the rule making powers of the administration. Conversely, there is a lot of administration involved in legislation (law-making). Similar, for judicial powers, a lot of administrative authorities have been vested with judicial powers of adjudication. e.g. Magistrate, Income Tax officials, traffic police etc. all involved judicial functions by administrators. conversely as well, judiciary too requires and administration.

Difference Between Administration And Management


Traditionally, there have been two bases of distinction between the terms administration and management:

1) The classical distinction, where the term 'administration' is used for the government and 'mgt.' for private sector. In this sense, thus, though the activities are same, the areas of operation are different. It implies a horizontal basis of distinction between the two terms.
2) The area of operation distinction given by Henry Fayol : wherein he states that the activities by top level executives of an organization are termed 'administration' and those by middle level executive 'mgt'. thus persons involved in the formulation of policies ' managers'. it implies a vertical basis of distinction between the two terms.

However, these two bases of distinction are no more relevant these days. Today administration is involved not only in administration but also in public enterprises. Similarly, more and more private firms are going towards administration services. The growth of 'New Public management' is an indicator of changing roles of administration. Similarly, the horizontal basis of distinction too has become irrelevant because management is not confined to the middle level organization. Also management is not only doing the things but also getting things done. Moreover, administration is not only policy implementation but also policy formulation.

Thus in the present times, both administration and management mean a group activity involving co-operation and coordination to achieve certain desired goals or objectives.

POLITICS - ADMINISTRATION DICHOTOMY


Earlier scholars took the view that Public Administration deals only with Implementation of policies and not with policy formation. The argued that since policy formulations was a political exercise, and Public Administration has nothing to do with politics, thus there is a dichotomy between the politics and administration.

This view as consciously giving a separate identity to Public Administration, separate from its mother subject - Political Science. These scholars used to say that Political Sciences related with policy formation and Public Administration with policy implementation; and the Public Administration starts where Political Science ends.

however, the dichotomous view has slowly and gradually been discarded. Public Administration cannot exist and work in a vacuum. Thus Public Administration is presently considered a sub-system of Political Science. Along with this, in recent times, there has been a paradigm shift in the nature of Public administration from policy implementation to policy formulation.

Thus, though Public administration started as a separate discipline based politics-administration dichotomy, but over the years its nature has changed. Presently, there is not dichotomy. It is considered a sub-system of Political Science and there has been a paradigm shift from policy implementation to policy formulation.

Monday, March 16, 2015

Rice, Noodles and Seafood – #FarMoreSingapore

Singapore is one small country with variety of food cuisine. On my stay last month I got the chance to stay in one of the best places to visit for a foodie like me – Singapore, where people eat more than five times a day and you will hear every other person telling about a better porridge, noodles or seafood at their favorite place.





No matter where you are in Singapore, you will always find yourself surrounded with foodies who really care about they eat. One of the best noodles I ever had was in Singapore, they mix different things, the recipes are unimaginable to our kind of people but when they finish cooking it comes out as something really awesome.

If you are in Singapore then don’t forget to visit Hawker Centers, Kopitiams, Cze Chas and of course other food courts. Singapore is one of most warm welcoming places for Westerners, if you know how to speak English then it’s really easy to get around and interact with people. Local people will guide you towards the best eating joints, plus their open food courts (Hawker Centers) are full of fun & life.



Although there are loads of dishes like Tamarind Fish, Bubur Cha-cha, Singapore Sling, Hainanese chicken rice and a lot more which will become your favorite the very first time your taste buds feel them but I loved Singaporean Noodles more than anything, plus they are easy to make and real time saver too.

If you have ever visited Singapore then am sure you would have eaten this yummy noodle dish, mostly sold by street hawkers. Luckily I was able to get the recipe of it which am going to share with you all. Read carefully because there a little tips & tricks that makes all the difference between normal noodles and Singaporean Noodles. :D


Singaporean Noodles


It will take just 10 minutes to prepare this amazing dish and can be made with ease. A little tip is to mix curry powder with some water to make a paste as dry powder burns fast in hot oil and tastes bitter. Don’t drain the noodles, instead take them out of the water using your hands and while frying keep a cup of water ready with you to sprinkle so that they don’t get dry and break up into pieces.

Ingredients



  • 2 eggs, lightly beaten

  • 4–6 tsp hot curry powder

  • 2 cups bean sprouts

  • 300 g rice vermicelli

  • ½ cup vegetable oil

  • 250 g green (raw) prawns, shelled and deveined

  • 1 medium onion, chopped

  • 1 red capsicum, cut into fine strips

  • 3 tbsp light soy sauce

  • salt and freshly ground black pepper

  • 1 tbsp sesame oil

  • sprigs of coriander, to garnish

Instructions


Soak Vermicelli in cold water for 10-15 minutes and in the meantime heat 1 teaspoon of oil in a frying pan. Fry the prawns for a minute or two till they turn pinkish in color and then remove them into a bowl. Again heat two teaspoons of oil and fry the onion and capsicum in it. Remove them with the prawns and add eggs to the pan & cook them like an omelette. Cut it into thin slices and keep it aside.

Now add some more oil to the pan and mix the curry paste prepared already with noodles which you took out of water with your hands instead of draining the water. Fry them together and then add the onion –capsicum mixture, cutted out omelette, prawns and some soya sauce with salt & pepper as per taste. Fry and stir it for 4-5 minutes and you are ready to go.

Serve in plates, sprinkle some sesame oil and garnish with coriander.


I hope you guys will enjoy it to the fullest, although am sure you will. If you are not planning to visit Singapore anytime soon then also don’t worry… you can find a good no. of crazy recipes like this on discover.stayfareast.com and can prepare & enjoy the delicious flavor of Singapore Cuisines.

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Hope, small steps and the Goal

Everyone have their own problems in life, everyone have their own goals to achieve. Everybody is tensed with the ongoing situations, everybody wants to do something more to make their loved ones happy.

Work, Money and love are what our life revolves around. People want to provide for their family, their loved ones so they work hard to fulfill the wishes of their friends & family. This was the basic idea of going to office and working every day, but looking at the current scenario people have indulged themselves into work & money so much that they have forgotten the real meaning of living. Working 9 hours a day, 6 days a week we hardly get time to spend a minutes or two with our family and the stress level due to increasing competition gulps even those few minutes which we get to spend with our families. With this fast pace life we have forgotten the real meaning of happiness and the question we need to ask ourselves is why we started all this in the first place?

This above mentioned practice leads to misery kills our hope and drains out the happiness from our life. Just stop for a moment - #lookup and see... the blue sky, the chirping of birds, the smile of your friends and family. Realize why you are here and how much you mean to them. Cherish your relationships and find a way to balance it all.

Even if you fail at something... its ok.. you still have people who love you... life moves on.. Move with it... start again by taking small steps towards your goal. I myself struggled to get a job for almost a year, got rejected at interviews and failed miserably but as soon as I used to reach home, I used to see my mom waiting for me... smiling and ready with the food to fill my stomach. She is most supportive I hve ever seen and never asked me how things went. She kept my hope alive with her smile and her wise words... and the day I got my first job, the happiness I saw on her face became one of the best memories of my life which filled me with immense happiness.

World is filled with positivity, you just need to look at it. As elusive as it may seem, optimism can be found all around - in the laughter of children, in the excitement on your pet's face when you get back after a long day, and in the smile of your loved ones when you go back home after months of being away. Enter the optimism of this positive world with www.housing.com who believe in bringing optimism to the world. Break Free from your daily routine, take a breath and let the positivity of this world reach you! :)

Take Risks - Move Ahead - #StartANewLife

In this world everything keeps on changing... Day changes to night, winters changes to summers, hot changes to cold and what not. People who don't love change always live in fear... Fear of taking risks... fear of losing what they have... Guess what??? No matter how much they try they still lose... Change overcomes their life and then they feel sad, angry & frustrated about it.

If we already know that no matter how much we try things will not remain as they are today and will eventually change then why don't we start accepting it and love whatever life has to throw at us ? Good Change signifies that we're moving forward, living better, and giving ourselves the chance to be the best we can possibly be. Changes don’t always seem to be good but they eventually turn out for our better only. Trust yourselves, take risks, and move ahead towards a new life.

I know saying is easy, getting ready for it seems tough. I have been through the same situation. After I cleared my high school I got admission in a good technical college which was 250 kms away from my home. With the wish of becoming a software engineer I joined the college but as I had never lived my life alone & going away from my parents to place so far for the first time was a big, challenging and a scary step to take. It gave me sleepless nights for a week with lots of questions in my mind like where I will live? How will I live? Will I get a good roommate or not? How will I live away from my parents? Will I get all the basic amenities like I get at home there or not? Etc. In this last week I read an article online which talked about The Change, how it is happening continuously throughout the world which cannot be stepped and how it is for the better. It motivated me to take the up challenge, take the risk of going alone and move ahead with my life which was the best decision I made for myself in my life.

I requested my parents to not to travel with me and insisted on going alone. I boarded the train alone, travelled 250 kms journey by myself (i travelled so far alone for the first time) and after reaching that city searched for a place to live, searched for a place to eat, moved into a flat. Kept my belongings safely and next day got ready & attended first day of my college.

Though it scares everyone to think and be ready about the change.. I too was scared but once I got ALL IN and dealt with it, I realized it was fun and was for my better only. It gave me courage to travel anywhere alone and a sense of freedom and success.

In that whole incident the most exhausting and difficult task was to find a place to stay after I reached the city. As technology has taken over the world with everything available online now you don't need to search for a house, flat manually by going house by house to examine the accommodations yourself. www.housing.com has taken up the initiative to convert this search to digital form where you can search your requirement accommodation and rent it even before visiting the place. Their staff works day and night to provide this service and their hardwork can be seen in the video below. Do have a look at it and do take risks in your life, as Change is for your own Good. :)

 

 

We Walk... #Together

Having a true companion in your life is a Blessing, which I pray everyone to get but not all people are that lucky. Please spend a lot of time in finding their true love, some are able to find it... and some still struggle. Those who get it, re-live their life to the fullest with that blessing but not everyone is not able to live forever it.

People lose their loved ones due to various reasons, which happen to become one of the saddest moments of their lives. But that is the way of life, sometimes you are so happy that you wish the day shouldn't end and sometimes you are so sad that a single passing minute feels like a year. There are hard times and then there are happy memorable times, but having the one who stays and helps you in both these times (hard & happy) is the one in the presence of whom you are really blessed.

Last time I was struggling to get a job, it had been more than a year I passed my college and was living without a job. Being jobless in our society is a curse. That was the time when I used to get frustrated, angry and feel sorry for myself and ashamed of being me. Although I have the most supportive and awesome parents in the world which never taunted me or asked me that why am not getting a job but I was still able to see the tension in their eyes worrying about the future of their son.

In those tough times the only moment I used to feel happy was when I used to chat with my love... The one who has supported me throughout my tough time... Even uptill today. Everyday our chats ended up with my telling her that I am a failure in life and she should move on and her saying that it’s just a job, you already are a blogger.... you don't need a job.. Screw the world... Focus on what you like. She always believed in me and told me that I will get a job... a good job and it’s just a matter of time. With these little motivations and happiness I used to get, I was able to sleep peacefully in those nights and wake up with energy to try again. After a little struggle of few months, I finally got a job in the year end with a good salary package (won't reveal it: P) and one of the hurdles of my life got removed.

That was one of the toughest times of my life uptill now; the pressure... the shame... the sense of being a failure would have drowned me into unimaginable bad situations if I was not having the support and the company of my Blessing - the love of my life... Tishya. It’s not always what they say or what they advise... sometimes simply their presence means everything and gives you the courage & motivation to try again, getting pass through the tough time and looking forward for the good life ahead.

Speaking of looking forward to my good life ahead, as I have got the job now am looking to forward to the next step (which I suppose you all know what it is), so while planning for it last night I started searching for good rental accommodations to live in and came across www.housing.com where I found a good amount of listings filtered to my preferences of place, rent and size out of which I have shortlisted a few and will visit them this weekend.

I hope you guys soon get your blessing and get to feel what the power of being #together is!

Saturday, November 29, 2014

The power of voice to clean India

Have you ever seen hollywood movies? I am sure you would have loved the background views of new york city, paris and other places shown in them and would love to vist them.if you get a chance. Do you know why we love those places so much? Its because we see the views which we have never seen India, the damn clean places complimented by thenawesome environment they have created for themselves. Like Greece, Rome and other counties India is rich too in culturak heritage with its marvelous monuments and everything still we are not able to create that environment for ourselves because of one and only one reason - we don't love our cities as much as we love our homes.

We Indians do everything to clean our homes from sweeping to vaccum cleaners, putting garbage in dustbins and teaching our childrens the same too..do we do the same when we are outside our homes? trying to keep our surroundings clean, scolding our children if they litter around? The answer is no, we always blame our politicians and Municipality for not keeping the city clean but we never realize that municipality never throws garbage on streets, they clean it and its we who keeps on adding the garbage continously. Its we who need to change. Our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi has started the Swach Bharat Mission recently and its us who can bring the change.
Participating in this.mission doesn't onoy means picking up litter and cleaning your surroundings from time to time, it also means being a responsible citizen and raising your voice against people & authorities who are not working responsibly. Our government provides these organisations a large some of money every for cleaniness purposes and manyatimes we see that these organisations dont work up to the required mark. One should realize that its ones hard earned money that is being collected in form taxes and being given to these authorities, be responsible and raise your voice against the wrong. Every citizen as the fundamental right to speak and that is a power, power of speech that we all should exercise...
Keeping this in mind strepsils has started a campaign with hashtag #AbMontuBolega , details of which are available on www.abmontubolega.com , visit the link and participate in their ongoing competitions and raise your voice. You can also join them on their twitter and facebook pages. This is your chance to be a part of something big, join it , tell your friends about it and be proud of it.

Tuesday, November 18, 2014

A Click for Cleaner & Safer India

India is one of the fastest developing countries in the world with a population of 1.2 Billion (as per census 2011), still we lack behind in lots of things which are often ignored by the people like cleanliness, safe water drinking facilities, women safety and sanitation facilities. 597 million people in our country still defecate out in the open mainly due to lack of sanitation facilities and lack of knowledge of how it harms their health and hygiene & results in feeble diseases of their loved ones.

The first step is to understand that defecating out in open harms only us. The urine and stool lying around in the open spreads bacteria and creates pollution which results in unhealthy environment & spreading of diseases for the people living in nearby areas.

Second step is to provide proper sanitation facilities to the people and motivate them to use it. Our Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi has initiated steps towards this and has allocated Rs. 100 crores in current economic budget to provide proper sanitation facilities in the rural areas. The Swach Bharat Abhiyaan aimr at keeping our city and villages clean and motivates people to take initiatives in keeping their surroundings clean & spread awareness on the same.

Many private companies have also come forward and have taken initiatives for building up of toilets and their maintenance for public use. Domex, HUL's flagship brand has also come to the rescue and has decided to build toilets under the Domex Toilet Academy Programme. They have already brought the change in villages of Maharashtra & Orissa in last one year and aim at building 24000 toilets by 2015 in rural areas which face problem of open defecation. Domex is currently running a campaign #ToiletForBabli and you can help bring change in lives of millions of children by tweeting your views with hashtag #ToiletForBabli. You can also support the Domex Initiative by clicking on the "Contribute Tab" on www.domex.in . For every click you make Domex will contribute Rs. 5 on your behalf towards the cause eradicating open defecation. So go ahead and do a click for cleaner & safer India.

A cleaner India will not only keep us and our children healthy but will change the perspective in which the whole world sees us, which will result in increase in no. of tourists and foreign investors from all over the world, thus resulting in a boost to our economical growth.

Lets do our bit in contribution and move towards a cleaner India, a better INDIA.

Sunday, November 2, 2014

Mary Parker Follet

Mary Parker Follet occupies a prominent place in the community of thinkers on administrative thoughts though she is less known in comparison to other thinkers. She initiated studies on industrial groups. Traditionally the social and political scientists concentrated on the studies of the state or the society but her studies were concentrated on the industry. She evolved principles of human association and organization in the context of industry. Her prominent works include The Speaker of the House of Representatives (1909), The New State (1920), Creative Experience (1924) and Dynamic Administration (1941). Dynamic Administration was posthumously edited by Metcalf and Urwick. Her views will be discussed under the following heads:

Idea of Constructive Conflict & the Ways of Resolving It


Follet gives quite important place to conflicts in her writings. According to her, conflicts are result of "socially valuable differences" and these are normal processes which may occur in any activity of the organization. Conflict should not be seen with any biases. It is neither good nor bad. It is just the appearance of difference which should be capitalized upon. As all polishing is done by friction, similarly conflicts could also be constructive and could enrich all. Follet gives three ways of dealing with conflict. These are described below:
A. Domination - It means victory of one side over the other. This seems to be the easiest way of resolving conflicts but it is not successful in the long run. The "repressed wishes" of the dominated always rebel against the dominator whenever it is possible.
B. Compromise - People settle most of their conflicts through compromise only. Each party to the conflict gives up a little in this method to resolve it. This quite wide accepted way of resolving conflict still people are reluctant to go for it as it involves losing something.
C. Integration - In this method two desires are integrated and there is no need to sacrifice its desires on any side. Follet favors this method of resolving conflict in comparison to other two methods. Domination is not preferable due to obvious reasons, compromise does not create something new but integration gives rise to the new ideas and innovation in social relationships. Integration also solves the problem permanently as it strikes at the root of the problem. In sum, integration is "win all" situation.

Steps in the Process of Integration


Follet told the following steps in the process of integration. These are as follows:

  1. The first step is to bring the differences into open instead of suppressing them. The immediate necessity in resolving conflict is to understand and identify the nature of conflict.

  2. Second step is to divide the whole conflict into smaller constituent parts. Sometimes the opposite process may be followed.

  3. Third step is the anticipation of the conflict. It means knowing which way the conflict would head once the proposals are prepared and presented to the parties. It is like a game of chess where all moves are pre-calculated. "Circular" not linear response is required in anticipation of conflict.


Though Follet proposes integration as the way to resolve conflicts permanently still is alive to the problems in the whole process. Lack of inventiveness, habit of enjoying domination and use of proper language etc. are some of the problems. She emphasises on the proper training to resolve all these issues. According to her, courses on the art of co-operative thinking should be there both for the managers as well for the workers to master the art of integration.

The Law of Situation: Depersonalising Orders


Follet was concerned about too much of "Bossism" in giving orders. To avoid it she was suggested depersonalising orders. For this law of situation was proposed by Follet. According to this law, the order should not be given by one person to the other, rather both the order giver and the order taker should take the order from the situation. This law gives importance to the authority of the situation rather than the authority of the individual. Further Follet insists that the orders should be integral to the situation I. e. they should keep pace with the situation and should not be static. This will be possible only when the orders are taken from the situation and not externally.

Concept of "Power-with" rather than "Power over"


Follet terms power as the "ability to make things happen, to be a causal agent, to initiate change". She distinguishes "power-over" from "power-with". The former represents coercive power while the latter represents the co-active power. Power-with is better as people wish to be seen as working with someone rather than under someone. Also it promotes better understanding, reduces friction and encourages co-operation. According to Follet it is not possible for people to get rid of power over concept. But this can be accomplished by following the law of situations, functional unity and integration. Functional unity means that within his own sphere of functions, everyone has authority and responsibility for accomplishing those functions.

Functional Unity: Authority of Function


As already mentioned, functional unity means that for each allotted function each has authority and responsibility which go with that function. Further as authority rests with the function and not with the individual, authority/power cannot be delegated. Power is the result of knowledge and ability so it cannot be delegated. According to Follet, derivation of authority from some central authority should be replaced by the "authority of function" in which each individual has final authority within the allotted functions. Authority can be conferred on others but this is not delegation. According to her, delegation of authority should be an "obsolete expression". Like authority responsibility also flows from the situation. In the overall scheme of the things according to functional unity, the question that should be asked is "for what is he responsible rather than to whom is he responsible".

Concept of Leadership according to Follet


According to Follet the concept of leadership has also undergone significant changes due to the changing circumstances and new concepts such as human relations etc. Leadership does not come from the official status or position but from the attributes like encouraging initiative and energizing group. According to her such people are not just found at positions of power but throughout the organisation. She categorises three types of leaderships - leadership of position, leadership of personality and leadership of function. In modern organisations, those possess expert knowledge & skills and not the ones who have formal authority and personality actually lead. This is due to the fact that they take leadership due to the situation. It is the reason they can give orders even to
those in higher ranks. Follet lists three important functions of a leader. These are - coordination, definition of purpose and anticipation.

Critical Evaluation of Mary Parker Follet


Mary Parker Follet is called as one of the earliest behavioralists as she was among the earlier scholars to analyze the organizational behavior. Still some writers on organization theory have classified her as 'classical' thinker. She was criticized for not seeing the organizational processes in the social context. Some scholars regard her inconsistent in her approach as her ideas were not well organized. She analyzed the process of conflict resolution in detail and gave a new concept of integration. She negated the "Trait Theory" of leadership and advanced the situational variable to leadership. She conceived leadership to be function of three variables - the leader, followers and the situation. Situational control was the best form of control according to her.
Follet also gave the concept of "Cumulative Responsibility" which should be imbibed in the workers. According to this concept, realization of just the individual responsibility is not enough rather the workers should be made to realize "joint responsibility" which sensitizes them towards other units also. This automatically solves the problem of co- ordination also.
Due to her multi-dimensional focus, Urwick has described Follet as a "woman who had a universal mind." Though her ideas on integration were termed as illusory as they were good to look at but difficult to achieve still her contributions were phenomenal and she was in fact ahead of her times.